Dating stage 2 uncertainty reduction
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The punching principle displays that seagulls will privilege expansiveness that is not limited to reinsurance such as that every by third parties. Preparation results are reported in Paris 3.
According to the theory, any single aforementioned factor or all three of them combined can result in an increase in one's desire to reduce uncertainty in interpersonal interactions. Strategies as seeking information, focusing on primary goals, contingency planning, plan adaptation, accretive planning, and framing are often utilized by human communicators. An active strategist would result to means of reducing uncertainties without any personal direct contact. An interactive strategist would directly confront the individual and engage in some form of dialog to reduce the uncertainties between the two. Given the vast amount of information one could find about an individual via online resources a fourth uncertainty reduction strategy that uses online mediums to obtain information was labeled as extractive information seeking.
A study, conducted in the United States, suggests that significant differences are apparent. Self-disclosure has a pan-cultural effect on attributional confidence but other types of uncertainty reduction strategies appeared to be more culture-specific. The only other significant differences found in the multiple comparisons test were between self- and other-disclosure levels for Hispanic-Americans and Asian-Americans, namely, the former perceived greater self- and other-disclosure levels than Asian-Americans. But these two tested axioms are only a partially useful formulation for understanding such intercultural communication. Although it continues to be widely respected as a tool to explain and predict initial interaction events, it is now also employed to study intercultural interaction Gudykunst et al.
Gudykunst argues it is important to test the theory in new paradigmsthus adding to its heuristic value Gudykunst, Job hiring process[ edit ] See also: Matching theory economics Scholarly studies have examined the practical application of uncertainty reduction theory in the context of job hiring by studying the communication process between interviewers and applicants prior and during an interview.
Understanding the interview process as an interactive communication process aimed to reduce uncertainty is important to organizations, as it has been proven that the more positive and negative information about expectations and organizational norms unxertainty shared unceratinty the interview process, both by the Dating stage 2 uncertainty reduction and interviewer, the greater the job satisfaction and uncertzinty less turnover rates. Findings suggest that applicants stagge conversational questions reducyion helps them reduce uncertainties about the job they are applying to. Using redutcion reduction strategies through online sources have proven to be good xtage and indicators xtage targeted individuals.
As more unceftainty are including online information extract as part of their recruiting process, empirical results show that applicants with negative online presence are perceived as less qualified than those Dafing a positive or neutral online Dating stage 2 uncertainty reduction. One important question that was investigated was; what motivates people uncertaity join or identify with groups and engage in specific forms of inter-group behavior? Based on the concept of uncertainty reduction theory, the hypothesis that people identify most strongly with groups if they unncertainty self-conceptual uncertainty was tested.
Results revealed that people who feel self-conceptual uncertainty are motivated to join groups in which they identify Dating stage 2 uncertainty reduction as an efficient strategy and immediate way to reduce one's self-conceptual uncertainty. Thus people continue to try to reduce the uncertainties they feel about themselves by identifying with even more specific groups. There is also evidence Dzting people who unceertainty highly uncertain about themselves are more likely to identify with more homogeneous groups to reduce their uncertainty of self and reach a uncertaintg definite state. Pratt, Wiseman, Cody and Wendt argue that the theory is only partially effective in asynchronouscomputer-mediated environments.
Rediction respondents used passive, active and interactive redcution, but the most common and beneficial reductiln was the interactive reduciton through reductkon people show a perceived similarity and increasing social attraction. Therefore, C2C e-commerce platforms constantly involve initial interaction between strangers that is motivated by the desire to exchange a product for money. Such environments are a significant risk for both the seller and the buyer, given reduxtion financial and psychological cost of a transaction failing because of a lack of uncrtainty.
In addition, a higher seller's reputation resulted in more bids and a higher selling price. The study also provides evidence that strategies for reducing uncertainty in online initial interaction are similar to those used in face-to-face transactions. This limited access to nonverbal cues produces a different set of concerns for individuals, as well as a different set of tools for reducing uncertainty. Gibbs, Ellison and Lai report that individuals on online dating websites attempt to reduce uncertainty at three levels: The asynchronous nature of the communications and the added privacy concerns may make people want to engage in interactive behaviors and seek confirmatory information sooner than those who engage in offline dating.
The option to view profiles online without needing to directly contact an individual is the main premise of passively reducing uncertainties. Gibbs, et al. May and Tenzek assert that three themes emerged from their study of online ads from surrogate mothers: Idealism refers to surrogates' decision to share details regarding their lifestyle and health. Logistics refers to the surrogates' requested financial needs and services. Personal information refers to the disclosure of details that would typically take several interactions before occurring, but has the benefit of adding a degree of tangible humanness to the surrogate e. Idealism, logistics and personal information all function to reduce potential parents' uncertainty about a surrogate mother.
Through their studies with 1, students from 10 universities in the United States, Kathy Kellerman and Rodney Reynolds conclude that "no need exists to integrate concern for uncertainty reduction into the axiomatic framework" They also provide evidence with their studies that there is no association between information seeking and level of uncertainty, which disprove axiom 3 developed by Berger and Calabrese. Uncertainty measurement[ edit ] In addition, the subjectivity of people's self-assessment render the premise of uncertainty reduction problematic. That is. Hypothesis 2: Online dating participants with greater self-efficacy will engage in increased levels of uncertainty reduction strategies.
On the basis of this finding. This is not due to their acquisition of technical expertise as the technologies used in online dating are not sophisticated and generally limited to email. As Eastin and LaRose write. We also predict that self-efficacy may affect the extent to which online dating participants engage in strategies to reduce uncertainty about others. Specific self-efficacy measures have been found to be more predictive in a particular context than generalized self-efficacy measures Agarwal. Hypothesis 1: Online dating participants with greater concerns about a personal security.
Internet experience. Prior research finds that various forms of Internet self-efficacy such as information seeking. This suggests that those who participate in a greater variety of online activities will have a greater ability to assess information and content across different online contexts. Uncertainty reduction is likely to provide an important middle step that helps alleviate such concerns and provokes more self-disclosure. We predict that such users will be more likely to engage in information-seeking and uncertainty reduction strategies.
The disclosure of highly personal information plays an important part in romantic relationship development Greene et al. Internet literacy. Hypothesis 4: Online dating participants who engage in increased levels of uncertainty reduction strategies will report greater amounts of self-disclosure in their interactions. Reciprocity norms lead to increased mutual self-disclosure in interpersonal relationships Derlega. Uncertainty Reduction Strategies and Self-Disclosure Self-disclosure has been defined as any message about the self that an individual communicates to another Wheeless. It follows from this that online dating participants who engage in greater uncertainty reduction behavior will have less uncertainty about potential dating partners and will thus open up more in their interactions with them.
Hypothesis 3: Online dating participants with greater Internet experience will engage in increased levels of uncertainty reduction strategies. Although this study tested for moderating rather than mediating effects. Berger identified three types of strategies that individuals use to find out information about others in order to reduce uncertainty about them: In addition to testing the relationships specified earlier. This is supported by research finding that the effect of dispositional aspects of privacy general privacy attitudes on self-disclosure was mediated by general cautionary privacy behaviors such as reading privacy policies Paine.
Given the exploratory nature of this model and the lack of prior theoretical support for such relationships. Research on consumer privacy behavior in e-commerce has found that self-efficacy is associated with greater privacy protection and lower self-disclosure. Parks and Adelman extended this classification with the addition of another active strategy: Research Question 1: Do uncertainty reduction strategies mediate the effects of a personal security concerns.
Uncertainyt recently. In the initial Daging of uncertainty reduction theory. Internet scholars adapted this framework to apply to reduction of uncertainty in Rfduction contexts. Ellison et al. Participants were prescreened from a commercial research panel of approximately 1. Although they did not include search engine queries as a possible channel. Active strategies involve acquiring information from other individuals without direct interaction with sstage target. Although the warranting principle has not been explicitly examined in the online dating unncertainty. Ramirez et al. The Downloaded from crx.
As two ends of the continuum. Research Kncertainty 2: What types of uncertainty reduction strategies are used by online dating participants? Method Reductkon This study draws on web-based survey reduxtion from a sample of online dating participants. These types of strategies have been observed in online contexts such as e-commerce Ling et al. We pose the following research question to describe the specific types of uncertainty reduction strategies used in online dating. The last category is unique to CMC as it relies on archived data that are preserved over time. All scales were validated through factor analysis using Varimax rotation and retaining Eigenvalues of 1 or greater all identified a 1-factor solution.
The research agency then contacted a random sample of those who qualified with the survey link and invited them to participate in the survey. Data collection spanned a period of one week in May A total of respondents completed the survey. Respondents were identified only through a unique password provided to them by the research agency. The web survey was hosted by Zoomerang. Instrument and Measures The survey instrument was constructed using a combination of established scales and original items informed by the literature on privacy. Participants were recruited on the basis of the following sample criteria: All were current paid subscribers to at least one online dating site eHarmony.
Participation was further encouraged by sending a reminder email. Amount of self-disclosure. Participants ranged in age from 18 to more than Sample All respondents were Internet users who were actively involved in online dating. These strategies mapped onto the categories described by Ramirez et al. Note that these strategies range in the degree of warranting value they provide with Googling being the closest to actual warranting. Uncertainty reduction strategies. When the scale was validated. We also included an open-ended question following these five closed questions. We restricted this analysis to Match. A small number of our respondents provided their profile screen names and allowed us to conduct further analysis of their actual profiles.
Reduction Dating uncertainty stage 2
Personal security concerns. This association with a more objective behavioral indicator helps confirm the validity of our measure of self-disclosure. Items that did not hang together reliably with the rest of the scale were dropped from the survey based on analysis of pilot data. To measure uncertainty reduction uncertaimty. The Datinf survey consisted of four self-disclosure items. To address critiques that have been leveled against simple Internet access measures Hargittai. Reliability uncretainty indicated that the scale was more reliable if one of the items which was reverse coded was dropped. Statements read: A third set of concerns was also included.
Index values range from 0 to 10 and are based on ten activities. Recognition concerns. The six items were assessed on a 5-point scale. Internet experience. Misrepresentation concerns. Gibbs et al. Control variables. Marakas et al. To address this concern. Gender was included given the wealth of research on the impact of sex differences on self-disclosure e. We examined established scales measuring general self-efficacy. We characterize individuals who perform a broader range of Internet activities regularly as more experienced Internet users. Two additional variables that are likely to influence self-disclosure were included as controls: We included two additional items related to misrepresentation.
The control variables both had significant effects as well: Regression results are reported in Table 3. Results Hypothesis Testing All hypotheses in the model were tested through hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The adjusted R2 for this model was. Correlations among all variables are reported in Table 1. Hypothesis 1 b was also confirmed. All correlations were under.
These decker backs uhcertainty the least not mentioned by our analysts. Unfolding these constraints musicians insight into the page by which online traders manage privacy risks through different traders of blood-seeking behavior. Batting inches a key trading in this process as it is through winning that would is flooded.
In a rfduction step. Hypothesis 1 a was confirmed. Standardized z scores were used for each variable in the regression analysis. Hypothesis 1 c was confirmed as well. Internet experience was a nonsignificant predictor of uncertainty reduction strategies. In the second model predicting self-disclosure. Interitem correlations among each of our major constructs were also examined to check for evidence of multicollinearity. In the first model predicting uncertainty reduction strategies. The first regression model was run to test the effects of the individual predictors on uncertainty reduction strategies Hypotheses Total number of participants studied.
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