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History of Israel
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The Book of Joshua and the accounts of the kingship of David and Solomon in the book of Kings are believed to have the same author. The books are known as Deuteronomist and considered to be a key step in the emergence of Monotheism in Judah. They emerged at a time that Assyria was weakened by the emergence of Babylon and may be a committing to text of pre-writing verbal traditions. The Phillistines were also driven into exile. The defeat of Judah was recorded by the Babylonians   see the Babylonian Chronicles. Babylonian Dating hampshire jewish lake new service silver Biblical sources suggest that the Judean king, Jehoiachinswitched allegiances between the Egyptians and the Babylonians and that invasion was a punishment for allying with Babylon's principal rival, Egypt.
The exiled Jews may have been restricted to the elite. Jehoiachin was eventually released by the Babylonians. Tablets which seem to describe his rations were found in the ruins of Babylon see Jehoiachin's Rations Tablets. According to both the Bible and the Talmud, the Judean royal family the Davidic line continued as head of Babylonian Jewry, called the "Rosh Galut" head of exile. Arab and Jewish sources show that the Rosh Galut continued to exist in what is now Iraq for another 1, years, ending in the eleventh century.
Cyrus issued a proclamation granting subjugated nations including the people of Judah religious freedom for the original text see the Cyrus Cylinder. According to the Hebrew Bible 50, Judeans, led by Zerubabelreturned to Judah and rebuilt the temple. Modern scholars believe that the final Hebrew versions of the Torah and Books of Kings date from this periodthat the returning Israelites adopted an Aramaic script also known as the Ashuri alphabetwhich they brought back from Babylon; this is the current Hebrew script. The Hebrew calendar closely resembles the Babylonian calendar and probably dates from this period. In the early 20th century papyrus documents were discovered, recording activity in this community, including the "Passover Papyrus", a letter instructing the garrison on how to correctly conduct the Passover feast.
Sometime thereafter, the first translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagintwas begun in Alexandria. After Alexander's death, his generals fought over the territory he had conquered. The Books of the Maccabees describe the uprising and the end of Greek rule. A Jewish party called the Hasideans opposed both Hellenism and the revolt, but eventually gave their support to the Maccabees. Modern interpretations see the initial stages of the uprising as a civil war between Hellenised and orthodox forms of Judaism. As part of the struggle against Hellenistic civilisationthe Pharisee leader Simeon ben Shetach established the first schools based around meeting houses.
Justice was administered by the Sanhedrinwhich was a Rabbincal assembly and law court whose leader was known as the Nasi. The Nasi's religious authority gradually superseded that of the Temple's high priestwho under the Hasmoneans was the king himself. Herod the Great considerably enlarged the temple see Herod's Templemaking it one of the largest religious structures in the world. Despite its fame, it was in this period that Rabbinical Judaismled by Hillel the Elderbegan to assume popular prominence over the Temple priesthood. The Jewish Temple in Jerusalem was granted special permission not to display an effigy of the emperor, becoming the only religious structure in the Roman Empire that did not do so.
Special dispensation was granted for Jewish citizens of the Roman Empire to pay a tax to the temple. There was a small revolt against Roman taxation led by Judas of Galilee and over the next decades tensions grew between the Greco-Roman and Judean population centered on attempts to place effigies of the Emperor Caligula in Synagogues and in the Jewish temple. In the year 50 CE, the Council of Jerusalem led by Paul, decided to abandon the Jewish requirement of circumcision and the Torah, creating a form of Judaism highly accessible to non-Jews and with a more universal notion of God.
Another Jewish follower, Peter is believed to have become the first Pope. Over the next few hundred years this requirement became steadily more ingrained in Jewish tradition. Josephus estimated that over a million people died in the siege of Jerusalem. The Temple and most of Jerusalem was destroyed. During the Jewish revolt, most Christiansat this time a sub-sect of Judaism, removed themselves from Judea. After the war Jews continued to be taxed in the Fiscus Judaicuswhich was used to fund a temple to Jupiter. A victory arch erected in Rome can still be seen today. Tensions and attacks on Jews around the Roman Empire led to a massive Jewish uprising against Rome from to This conflict was accompanied by large-scale massacres of both sides.
Cyprus was so severely depopulated that new settlers were imported and Jews banned from living there. Jews were banned from living in Jerusalem itself a ban that persisted until the Arab conquestand the Roman province, until then known as Iudaea Provincewas renamed Palaestinano other revolt led to a province being renamed. From tothe Jewish leader Simon Bar Kokhba led another major revolt against the Romans, again renaming the country "Israel"  see Bar Kochba Revolt coinage.
The Bar-Kochba revolt probably caused more trouble for the Romans than the better documented revolt of During the Bar Kokhba revolt a rabbinical assembly decided which books could be regarded as part of the Hebrew Bible: A rabbi of neww period, Simeon bar Yochaiis regarded as the author lkae the Zoharthe foundational text for Kabbalistic thought. However, silvfr scholars eervice it was written in Medieval Spain. The most famous of these was Judah haNasi who is credited with compiling the wilver version of the Mishnah a massive body of Jewish religious texts interpreting the Bible and with strengthening the educational demands of Judaism by requiring that illiterate Jews be treated as outcasts.
As a result, many illiterate Jews may have converted to Christianity. However, economic mismanagement of the Roman economy in the third century led to a collapse of Roman trade and empire, as well as increased taxation and persecution,  which caused most Jews to migrate to the more tolerant Persian Sassanid Empirewhere a prosperous Jewish community with extensive seminaries existed in the area of Babylon. Rome adopts Christianity Early in the 4th century, the Emperor Constantine made Constantinople the capital of the East Roman Empire and made Christianity an accepted religion. His mother, Helena made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem — and led the construction of the Church of the Nativity Bethlehemthe Church of the Holy Sepulchre Jerusalem and other key churches that still exist.
The name Jerusalem was restored to Aelia Capitolina and it became a Christian city.
Jews were still banned from living in Jerusalem, but were allowed to visit, and it is in this period that the surviving Western Wall of the Temple became sacred to Judaism. He died while fighting the Persians in and the project was discontinued. Byzantine period — Further information: Byzantine Christianity was dominated by the Greek Eastern Orthodox Church whose massive land ownership has mewish into the present. In the 5th serbice, the Western Roman Empire collapsed leading to Christian migration into the Roman haampshire of Palaestina Prima and development of a Christian jweish.
Judaism was the only non-Christian religion tolerated, but restrictions on Jews slowly increased to include a ban on building new places of worship, holding public office or owning slaves. Infollowing the death of the last Nasi, Gamliel VIthe Sanhedrin was officially abolished and the title of Nasi banned. Reporters and editors largely did not believe the atrocity stories coming out of Europe. Abraham Joshua Heschel summarized this dilemma when he attempted to understand Auschwitz: Israel enables us to bear the agony of Auschwitz without radical despair, to sense a ray [of] God's radiance in the jungles of history. Zionism became a well-organized movement in the U.
Franklin D. Roosevelt 's leftist domestic policies received strong Jewish support in the s and s, as did his anti-Nazi foreign policy and his promotion of the United Nations. Support for political Zionism in this period, although growing in influence, remained a distinctly minority opinion among German Jews until about —45, when the early rumors and reports of the systematic mass murder of the Jews in German-occupied Europe became publicly known with the liberation of the Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps. The founding of Israel in made the Middle East a center of attention; the recognition of Israel by the American government following objections by American isolationists was an indication of both its intrinsic support and influence.
This attention initially was based on a natural and religious affinity toward and support for Israel in the Jewish community. The attention is also because of the ensuing and unresolved conflicts regarding the founding of Israel and Zionism itself. A lively internal debate commenced, following the Six-Day War. The American Jewish community was divided over whether or not they agreed with the Israeli response; the great majority came to accept the war as necessary.
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A tension existed especially for some Jews on the left who saw Israel as too anti-Soviet and anti-Palestinian. They tried to assure Congress that American Jewry was behind the Accord and defended the efforts of the administration to help the fledgling Palestinian Authority PAincluding promises of financial aid. In a battle for public opinion, IPF commissioned a number of polls showing widespread support for Oslo among the community. On October 10,the opponents of the Palestinian-Israeli accord organized at the American Leadership Conference for a Safe Israelwhere they warned that Israel was prostrating itself before "an armed thug", and predicted and that the "thirteenth of September is a date that will live in infamy".
Some Zionists also criticized, often in harsh language, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Pereshis foreign minister and chief architect of the peace accord. With the community so strongly divided, AIPAC and the Presidents Conference, which was tasked with representing the national Jewish consensus, struggled to keep the increasingly antagonistic discourse civil. The conference, which under its organizational guidelines was in charge of moderating communal discourse, reluctantly censured some Orthodox spokespeople for attacking Colette Avitalthe Labor-appointed Israeli Consul General in New York and an ardent supporter of that version of a peace process.
The Jewish population of the United States is either the largest in the world, or second to that of Israel, depending on the sources and methods used to measure it. Precise population figures vary depending on whether Jews are accounted for based on halakhic considerations, or secular, political and ancestral identification factors. There were about 4 million adherents of Judaism in the U. According to the Jewish Agencyfor the year Israel is home to 6. This figure is significantly higher than the previous large scale survey estimate, conducted by the — National Jewish Population estimates, which estimated 5.
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