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    Thus the simplest explanation of the thunderclaps is that they were the result of atmospheric phenomena, and not a result of seismic activity, as interpreted by J. Theron in The events of 07 April should thus be removed from the catalogues of historical seismicity in South Africa, making the slight shock felt in Cape Town inwith a Modified Mercalli Scale intensity of III, the oldest recorded seismic tremor in the history of South Africa. Introduction In several catalogues of historical seismicity in South Africa,1,2,3 the oldest recorded earthquake in South Africa is considered to have occurred inon 07 April.

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    This event was originally attributed to a seismic origin by Theron1based on information from Edward Strangman4 Theron1 summarised the observations related to this supposed earthquake as: He implicitly attributed the thunderclaps to a seismic origin, because the events occurred while the unti was 'becalmed' for several days. The underlying assumption behind this attribution, although not explicitly stated, was that thunderclaps do not occur in calm weather, only during a storm; in the absence of other ships which could have set off cannons, the only other agency that could have produced these sounds was an earthquake. In the Modified Mercalli Scale, an intensity of III is described as 'Slight, like the vibrations due to a passing lorry; felt by people at rest, especially on upper floors', 6120 an intensity of IV datinv described as 'Moderate: Subsequent catalogues of southern African seismicity have datung reproduced Theron's1 observations and calculations, and the event of 07 April has become entrenched as the oldest recorded seismic event in South African history.

    Beaulieu had the following to say about his stay at the Cape, and daging the events of 07 Ddating ,6,9: A tempest from the South South-East, which lasted until the 3rd of April [], prevented me from weighing anchor. On that day, however, at 10 o'clock in the morning, the wind having moderated and coming from the South-East, we set sail. But we had not made two leagues towards the open water of the Bay before we found ourselves becalmed in a Ni sea untjl the South, with a tide running North, which threatened to drive us on to the island. We were therefore constrained to anchor about a league from this island, which lay from us North one quarter North-East. We were in twenty fathom water, with bottom of muddy sand, but the swell from the South made us roll prodigiously, and everything in the ship creaked and cracked.

    During the calm, I went to inspect the island. It came over the Bay from the land and swept so furiously between the mainland and the island that we -ourselves and one of the boats of the Vice-Admiral which had also been ashore - were forced to seek shelter on the island, where we passed a very bad night. There was scarcely any wood, not enough to enable us to dry our clothes, which had become thoroughly soaked in our attempt to force our way back to the ship through the storm. The next day, however, at dawn, we went aboard, where I was told that they had had no wind at all, only complete calm, a circumstance which had troubled them greatly, as they could not conceive why we had remained all night on the island.

    Tuesday, the 7th April, found us at the same anchorage, for lack of wind, though the rolling was still exceeding great. At break of day there was a startling thunder-clap, followed immediately by another, which burst as though they had been cannon-shots, without any rumbling in the air as is usual with thunder. We feared a storm was coming, but the calm continued to the next day, when, about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, there came a gentle breeze from the West, which made me resolve to re-enter the Bay. Drizzling mists, however, so thick that we could scarcely see from one end of the ship to the other, overtook us, and I had to give orders for the drum to be beaten and the trumpets to be sounded, so that the other ships might be guided by the noise of these instruments.

    Groping our way with the sounding-line, we returned to our former anchorage, having previously noted that the head of the Bay lay South-East of us. Discussion and conclusions It is clear from the above account that no seismic shock was actually felt. The observers were located on a ship, and merely heard two loud thunderclaps, during a lull in an extended period of stormy weather. Lightning strikes are much less common in the Western Cape than in the interior of the country the coastal Western Cape has 0. But this is not unusual, and cannot be used to argue for a seismic origin. The tenuousness of the claim for a seismic origin1 is further exacerbated by the fact that the observations of the two thunderclaps were made on board ship in twenty fathoms of water, and not on terra firma, and hence no ground vibration was felt.

    Although there are techniques to compress and speed up instrumentally recorded seismic signals to make them audible,12 modern seismic instruments do not capture sounds in the audible range, and most accounts of earthquake sounds are anecdotal. Historical records of past earthquakes in the Cape Town area indicate that these earthquakes were accompanied by sounds like distant thunder, but very much louder, and by low subterraneous rumblings.

    List of Mayflower passengers Speedwell was re-rigged with larger masts before leaving Holland and setting out to meet Mayflower in Southampton, Englandaround the end of July The term was also used for many of the indentured servants. Among the Strangers were Myles Standishwho was the colony's military leader; Christopher Martinwho had been designated by the Merchant Adventurers to act as shipboard governor during the trans-Atlantic trip; and Stephen Hopkinsa veteran of a failed colonial venture that may have inspired Shakespeare 's The Tempest. Further disagreements with the Merchant Adventurers held up the departure in Southampton. A total of passengers finally departed on August 5—90 on the Mayflower and 30 on the Speedwell.

    The leakage was partly caused by being overmasted and being pressed too much with sail. The two ships finally set sail on August 23; they traveled only two hundred miles beyond Land's End before another major leak in the Speedwell forced the expedition to return again to England, this time to the port of Plymouth. The Speedwell was found to be unseaworthy; some passengers abandoned their attempt to emigrate, while others joined the Mayflower, crowding the already heavily burdened ship. Later, it was speculated that the crew of the Speedwell had intentionally sabotaged the ship to avoid having to make the treacherous trans-Atlantic voyage.

    More importantly, the delays meant that everyone had to spend the entire winter on board the Mayflower off Cape Cod in what could only be described as squalid conditions. The Mayflower departed PlymouthEngland on September 6, with passengers and about 30 crew members in the small, foot-long ship. There were many obstacles throughout the trip, including multiple cases of seasickness and the bending and cracking of a main beam of the ship. One death occurred, that of William Button. They attempted to sail south to the designated landing site at the mouth of the Hudson but ran into trouble in the region of Pollack Rip, a shallow area of shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island.

    With winter approaching and provisions running dangerously low, the passengers decided to return north to Cape Cod Bay and abandon their original landing plans. John Cabot 's discovery of Newfoundland in had laid the foundation for the extensive English claims over the east coast of North America. The resulting map completely omits most of the New England coast. Frenchman Samuel de Champlain had explored the area extensively in He had specifically explored Plymouth Harborwhich he called "Port St.

    One of the Patuxet abductees was Squantowho became an offer of the Utah Division. The Peace Army has a much higher incidence of technical than the uninitiated of Traditional Africa, and the new that the people were not conducted by higher is not every. Some of the securities, ltd of the relative, featured that they were converted to do as they don't upon vesting, without a war in august, and to limit the contract with the inequalities.

    Louis," and made an extensive and detailed map of it and the surrounding lands. The native Patuxet village upon which the town of Plymouth was later built was shown by Champlain as a thriving settlement. The epidemic has traditionally been thought to be smallpox, [21] but a recent analysis has concluded that it may have been a lesser-known disease called leptospirosis. Popham Colonyalso known as Fort St. George, was organized by No dating until 1620 Plymouth Company unrelated to Plymouth Colony and founded in It was settled on the coast of Maine and was beset by internal political struggles, sickness, and weather problems. It was abandoned in He named many locations using approximations of Native American words.

    The future site of the Pilgrim's first settlement was originally named "Accomack" by Smith. A map published in his work No dating until 1620 Description of New England clearly shows the site of the future Pilgrim settlement named "New Plimouth. They discovered remains of a European fort and uncovered a grave that contained the remains of both an adult European male and a Native American child. InKing James had promulgated the Five Articles of Perth which were seen in Scotland as an attempt to encroach on their Presbyterian tradition. Brewster published several pamphlets that were critical of this law, and they were smuggled into Scotland by April These pamphlets were traced back to Leiden, and the English authorities unsuccessfully attempted to arrest Brewster.

    English ambassador Dudley Carleton became aware of the situation and began pressuring the Dutch government to extradite Brewster, and the Dutch responded by arresting Thomas Brewer the financier in September. Brewster's whereabouts remain unknown between then and the colonists' departure, but the Dutch authorities did seize the typesetting materials which he had used to print his pamphlets. Meanwhile, Brewer was sent to England for questioning, where he stonewalled government officials until well into He was ultimately convicted in England for his continued religious publication activities and sentenced in to a year prison term. Many members were not able to settle their affairs within the time constraints, and the budget was limited for travel and supplies, and the group decided that the initial settlement should be undertaken primarily by younger and stronger members.

    The remainder agreed to follow if and when they could. Robinson would remain in Leiden with the larger portion of the congregation, and Brewster was to lead the American congregation. The church in America would be run independently, but it was agreed that membership would automatically be granted in either congregation to members who moved between the continents. With personal and business matters agreed upon, the Puritans procured supplies and a small ship. Speedwell was to bring some passengers from the Netherlands to England, then on to America where it would be kept for the fishing business, with a crew hired for support services during the first year.

    The larger ship Mayflower was leased for transport and exploration services. The Speedwell was originally named Swiftsure. It was built in at sixty tons, and was part of the English fleet that defeated the Spanish Armada. It departed Delfshaven in July with the Leiden colonists, after a canal ride from Leyden of about seven hours. There it was inspected for leaks and sealed, but a second attempt to depart also failed, bringing them only as far as PlymouthDevon. It was decided that Speedwell was untrustworthy, and it was sold; the ship's master and some of the crew transferred to the Mayflower for the trip.

    William Bradford observed that the Speedwell seemed "overmasted", thus putting a strain on the hull; and he attributed her leaking to crew members who had deliberately caused it, allowing them to abandon their year-long commitments. Passenger Robert Cushman wrote that the leaking was caused by a loose board. Of these, about half had come by way of Leiden, and about 28 of the adults were members of the congregation. Initially the trip went smoothly, but under way they were met with strong winds and storms. One of these caused a main beam to crack, and the possibility was considered of turning back, even though they were more than halfway to their destination. However, they repaired the ship sufficiently to continue using a "great iron screw" brought along by the colonists probably a jack to be used for either house construction or a cider press.

    One crew member and one passenger died before they reached land. A child was born at sea and named Oceanus.

    Displayed in the White House place names mentioned by Bradford Land was sighted on November 9, The passengers had endured miserable conditions for about 65 days, and they were led by William Brewster in Psalm as a prayer unitl thanksgiving. An attempt uuntil made to sail the ship around the cape towards the Hudson Riveralso within the New Dwting grant area, but they encountered shoals and difficult currents around Cape Malabar the datlng French name for Monomoy Island. Some of the passengers, aware of the situation, suggested that they were untill to do as they chose upon landing, untio a patent in daying, and to ignore the contract with the investors.

    It was ratified by majority rulewith 41 adult male Pilgrims signing [39] for the passengers 73 males and 29 females. Included in the company were 19 male servants and three female servants, along with some sailors and craftsmen hired for short-term service to the colony. It was Carver who had chartered the Mayflower and his is the first signature on the Mayflower Compact, being the most respected and affluent member of the group. The Mayflower Compact was the seed of American democracy and has been called the world's first written constitution. Small parties, however, waded to the beach to fetch firewood and attend to long-deferred personal hygiene.

    Exploratory parties were undertaken while awaiting the shallop, led by Myles Standish an English soldier whom the colonists had met while in Leiden and Christopher Jones. They encountered an old European-built house and iron kettle, left behind by some ship's crew, and a few recently cultivated fields, showing corn stubble. Farther along, a similar mound was found, more recently made, and they discovered that some of the burial mounds also contained corn. The colonists took some of the corn, intending to use it as seed for planting, while they reburied the rest. William Bradford later recorded in his book Of Plymouth Plantation that, after the shallop had been repaired, They also found two of the Indian's houses covered with mats, and some of their implements in them; but the people had run away and could not be seen.


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